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Archive for the ‘Fluorescent Tubes’ Category

Jun
18

 

surgeons working

Clean, clear and bright light is paramount to all medical staff

A hospital’s number one precedence is patient care. Improving patient care has become a priority for all health care providers with the overall objective of achieving a high degree of patient satisfaction.

‘The Australian health system is world-class in both its effectiveness and efficiency: Australia consistently ranks in the best performing group of countries for healthy life expectancy and health expenditure per person.’ (Doctor connect, 2015)

The quality of patient care is essentially determined by the quality of infrastructure, quality of training, competence of personnel and efficiency of operational systems. However, fundamental to any hospital effectiveness is the quality of medical and technical expertise and the equipment in practice. One (of the many) crucial aspects of medical diagnosis is from clinical observation.

Regular measurement and documentation of clinical observations are essential requirements for patient assessment and the recognition of health deterioration. An important aspect of medical diagnosis through clinical observation is the reliable detection of Cyanosis.

Cyanosis is a physical sign where the skin and mucous membranes give off a bluish discolouration, indicating that the oxygen levels in the blood are dangerously depleted. Cyanosis is associated with cold temperatures, heart failure, lung diseases and smothering. It is seen in infants at birth as a result of heart defects, respiratory distress syndrome, or lung and breathing problems. (Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 2008) While pulse oximeters are used in operating rooms and recovery areas, there are areas within hospitals where these are not universally used and there are some medical conditions, for example where patients have poor peripheral circulation, which can make their use unreliable. In such instances,the ability of medical staff to reliably detect the onset of cyanosis by visual observation may be critical to a patient’s health and well being.

Colour is observed by reflection of light from objects. Daylight or artificial light sources are not optimal for detecting cyanosis. The detection of cyanosis requires an adequate light wavelength of around the 660nm. (Midolo, 2007) If the output is too low a patient’s skin colour may appear darker and they may be misdiagnosed. Subsequently, if the output is too high it may disguise the cyanosis and it may not be diagnosed when it is in fact present. The underlying key is that clinical staff cannot rely on visual detection alone.

Extensive clinical trials carried out at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Sydney in the early 1970s identified a number of lamps that were suitable for reliable diagnosis of cyanosis. This led to the publication of AS 1765:1975 which included a graphical method of determining which lamps were suitable based on colour temperature and the colour rendering indices Ra and R13. An outline of the method can be found in AS/NZS 1680.2.5:1997 Appendix H.4

The lamps identified in the 1970s used halo-phosphor technology and generally had a continuous spectrum. In the 1980s, however, tri-phosphor lamps entered the market and over a period of time have replaced halo-phosphor lamps except for special purposes. Tri-phosphor lamps provide major efficacy and life benefits.

As part of a review of AS 1680 in the 1990s, Standards Australia Committee LG/1, Interior Lighting, revisited hospital lighting. Resources were not available to carry out the large scale trials of the 1970s, which had established the original cyanosis observation criteria. However, using the data from the first trials and the known reflective properties of blood, a methodology for calculating a Cyanosis Observation Index (COI) was established and published in AS 1680.2.5:1997. This publication sets out lighting recommendations for a variety of tasks carried out within hospitals and medical facilities, specifically for particular tasks associated with clinical observation, treatment and care.

The COI is a dimensionless number and is calculated from the spectral power distribution of a lamp. The methodology calculates the colour difference between blood viewed under the test lamp and when viewed under the reference lamp. To meet the Australian Hospital Standard and be suitable for detecting cyanosis in hospitals, all lamps must meet two criteria: a Cyanosis Observation Index of less than 3.3 and a colour temperature between 3200K and 5500K. Lamps with colour temperatures above 5500K provide false positive diagnoses of cyanosis and lamps with colour temperatures below 3200K results in failure to detect cyanosis.

During the development of the COI method and leading up to the publication of AS 1680.2.5:1997 a number of different lamps were assessed. At this time no triphosphor lamps or triphosphor based lamps were found to comply. It should also be noted that normal tungsten (incandescent) or tungsten halogen lamps generally do not meet the AS/NZS1680.2.5:1997 criteria although some special high colour temperature or filtered light sources will comply.

Modern lamps use rare earth-based phosphors which provide better colour rendering and provide more light output. Fluorescent lamps commonly in use may not have a continuous spectrum. When selecting lamps for the reliable diagnosis of cyanosis, Hospitals need to ensure that the lamps chosen have a COI of 3.3 or lower, have a colour temperature between 3200K and 5500K and are long lasting and cost effective.

In meeting such strict requirements, the COI compliant Hitachi AAA tube was developed. The Hitachi AAA tube uses a new type of high colour rendering phosphor for the highest CRI of 98 emitting the closest light output to natural light and reproduces all colours accurately. This fluorescent tube is suitable for hospital lighting applications in operating theatres, patient treatment rooms, consultation rooms, accident emergency areas and other areas that require close colour rendition of skin.

Since the research and work carried out based on the publication of AS/NZS 1680.2.5:1997 and prior in 1970, there are now several lamp types available in Australia that meet the COI and colour temperature requirements of AS/NZS 1680.2.5:1997. The Hitachi AAA fluorescent tube has a COI of 3.0, a colour temperature of 5000K and the highest colour rendition index of all lamps currently on the market.

Selection criteria for lamps for clinical observation:

The following selection criteria should be taken into account when selecting lamps for the reliable diagnosis of cyanosis:

  • COI of 3.3 or lower
  • colour temperature between 3300 K and 5300 K
  • lamp price
  • lamp availability
  • lamp life
  • lamp efficacy
  • lumen maintenance
  • lamp range

Moreover, with the continual influx of new technologies and the shift in focus for sustainable, energy efficient products, hospitals are continuing to look to the benefits of COI compliant LED lighting. LED technology has largely progressed and the technical development of LED continues to stride ahead.

Hospitals and healthcare facilities have some of the most rigorous lighting requirements of any setting. Clean, clear and bright light is paramount to all medical staff, whilst warm and welcoming environments can promote tranquillity for patients and visitors and denote safety. Hospital lighting must support the overall integrity of the most general – to the most highly specialised health care environments within the facility.

With such abundant amounts of electricity usage to be exercised, alongside the increasing outward cost pressures, it is paramount that hospitals make use of the benefits of LED lighting and its energy efficiency.

‘Energy efficiency’ entails using less energy to achieve the same level of outcome, or improved level of outcome for the same amount of energy. Improving energy efficiency offers economic benefits as it reduces energy consumption and thus energy expenditure. In an environment of increasing energy prices energy efficiency could stabilise energy expenditure.

Today’s LED lights are also more than 5 times energy efficient than conventional incandescent lights, cut energy use by more than 80 percent and can 10 times longer. The longer service life, reduced maintenance and lower energy requirements of LEDs result in substantial overall savings for any hospital or clinic.

Along with advantages such as energy-efficiency and controllability, the use of LEDs can help facilities managers lower maintenance costs because of their longevity. Hospital staff will spend less time maintaining the lighting and changing bulbs, which in turn potentially reduces the risks of install injuries such as ladder climbing, resulting in fewer accidents and work compensation claims.

Victorian public health services have been implementing energy efficiency initiatives for over ten years. Some of the more common initiatives include:5

  • installing more efficient lighting such as LED
  • installing lighting controls, for example motion sensors in infrequently occupied rooms, such as store rooms
  • installing variable speed drives for fans or pumps
  • installing newer and more efficient air-conditioning plant
  • installing air-conditioning controls such as time controllers that switch equipment off after hours
  • improving the maintenance of building systems.

Hospitals are focused on patient care and the patient experience, and lighting greatly influences the comfort of staff and patients. It is critical to foster environments that protect and promote the health and wellbeing of communities. The health and medical department plays a key role to communicate the importance of the natural and built environments to health and wellbeing of people.

References

1. Doctor Connect. (2015). Australia’s health system – an overview.
Retrieved April 28 2015 from http://www.doctorconnect.gov.au/internet/otd/publishing.nsf/Content/australiasHealthSystem

2. For Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: cyanosis. (n.d.) Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. (2008). Retrieved April 28 2015 from
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cyanosis

3. Midolo, N.A. (2007) Lighting for clinical observation of cyanosis.
Retrieved April 28 2015 from
http://www.ihea.org.au/files/HospEng_Autum_2007Midolo_n_Sergeyeva.pdf

4. AS/NZS 1680.2.5:1997, Interior lighting, Part 2.5:
Hospital and medical tasks, Standards Australia, 1997

5. Sustainability in Healthcare (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://www.health.vic.gov.au/sustainability/energy/efficiency.htm 

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Mar
24

Hitachi AAA Fluorescent Tube

Good lighting helps promote quality and competence within a hospital providing a welcome reassurance for patients. Hitachi recognises this and has designed a fluorescent tube that cares for patients’ health and safety while providing the hospital with optimal light that lasts.

Introducing the Hitachi AAA fluorescent tube with a Cyanosis Observation Index (COI) below the Australian Hospital Standard and the highest Colour Rendition Index (CRI) of all lamps on the market. The Hitachi AAA has been tested, approved and is the recommended fluorescent tube for hospitals.

The Hitachi AAA tube uses a new type of high colour rendering phosphor for the highest CRI of 98 emitting the closest light output to natural light and reproduces all colours faithfully.

The Australian Hospital Standard COI must be below 3.3. The Hitachi AAA tube has 3.0 CRI, that’s better than the Australian Hospital Standard so you can be sure that Hitachi AAA is the best lighting solution possible for your hospital and patients.

The AAA lamp emits absolutely no UV rays and will prevent discoloration and fading of objects and products while also caring for patients and staff in the hospital. ANL Lighting Marketing Manager Stephanie Leung says ‘This makes the Hitachi AAA Fluorescent Tubes the best lighting option for operating theatres, patient treatment rooms, consultation rooms, accident emergency areas and other areas within a hospital that require perfect colour rendition of skin.’

The Hitachi AAA tubes have a long life of 10,000 hours and hold a 1-year warranty that covers lamp failure and fading and is available in two sizes, a 20Watt and 40Watt lamp.

COI has been calculated in accordance with the method described in Appendix G of AS1680.2.5 : 1997.

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Mar
24

It's important that medical staff be able to correctly diagnose cyanosis through clinical observation.

A hospital’s number one priority is patient care. An important aspect of medical diagnosis thorough clinical observation is the reliable detection of cyanosis.

Cyanosis is a condition where the skin and mucous membranes give off a bluish discolouration, which indicates that oxygen levels in the blood are dangerously depleted. The ability of medical staff to reliably detect the onset of cyanosis by visual observation may be critical to a patient’s well being.

The detection of cyanosis requires adequate power output around the 660nm wavelength. If the output is too low a patient’s skin colour may appear darker and they may be diagnosed as cyanosed when this is not the case. On the other hand, if the output is too high it may mask the cyanosis and it may not be diagnosed when it is present. The end result is that clinical staff cannot rely on visual detection.

To meet the Australian Hospital Standard and be suitable for detecting cyanosis in hospitals, all lamps must meet two criteria: a Cyanosis Observation Index of less than 3.3 and a colour temperature between 3200K and 5500K. Lamps with colour temperatures above 5500K provide false positive diagnoses of cyanosis and lamps with colour temperatures below 3200K results in failure to detect cyanosis.

Fluorescent lamps commonly in use may not have a continuous spectrum. When selecting lamps for the reliable diagnosis of cyanosis, Hospitals need to ensure that the lamps chosen have a COI of 3.3 or lower, have a colour temperature between 3200K and 5500K and are long lasting and cost effective.

The Hitachi AAA fluorescent tube has a COI of 3.0, a colour temperature of 5000K and the highest colour rendition index of all lamps currently on the market. The Hitachi AAA tube has been tested, approved and is the recommended fluorescent tube for hospitals. This makes the Hitachi AAA fluorescent tubes the best lighting option for operating theatres, patient treatment rooms, consultation rooms, accident emergency areas and other areas within a hospital that require perfect colour rendition of skin.

The Hitachi AAA tubes have a long life of 10,000 hours and hold a 1-year warranty that covers lamp failure and fading and is available in two sizes, a 20w (2ft) and 40w (4ft) lamp.

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Sep
20
Vibe T8-T5 Fluorescent-Converter

Vibe T8-T5 Fluorescent Tube Converter

Next time that fluorescent tube finally flickers and dies, think about this energy saving alternative from VIBE Lighting that could save you 35% in energy costs.

Rather than replacing the inefficient 36W T8 fluorescent tube with another one, VIBE has an eco-friendly convertor kit that allows a thinner, more efficient 28W T5 fluoro tube to be DIY installed in the existing fixture.

This simple retrofit – which can be installed by any home handyman – allows you to maximize your energy savings by using the more energy efficient T5 tube while also saving you the cost of replacing the existing T8 fixture.

The VIBE T8/T5 retrofit convertor kit features electronic ballasts that make stuttering starters redundant, while delivering excellent levels of light stability.

The Australian-approved convertor kits eliminate any flicker or hum commonly associated with tubes equipped with standard magnetic ballasts and have a 25,000 hour life – up to three times longer than the ‘fat’ T8 tubes.

The convertors are available in a variety of wattages matched with tube lengths:

14W – 600mm

21W – 900mm

28W -1200mm

35W -1500mm

There are two choices of VIBE T8/T5 convertor kit which can come with or without an optional high-grade reflector to focus strong, white fluorescent light on the task at hand and help reduce instances of fatigue and eye-strain associated with flickering tubes and dim lighting.

The convertor is easy to install and does not require any re-wiring or modification or any special tools – simply remove the old tube and standard magnetic starter ballast and install the adaptor and lamp.

Where existing fixtures are already equipped with an electronic ballast it must be removed by a registered electrician before the convertor kit can be installed.

Other features of the T8/T5 retro-kit include:

• Triphosphor tubes give full colour spectrum light output

• Higher colour index gives better colour reproduction (CRI of 83)

• High colour temperature for better visual acuity

• High power factor of 96 converts more energy to light

VIBE Lighting says an office replacing 200 conventional tubes with 28W T5 convertor kits could save an estimated $1305 in energy costs and more than 80kg of C02 per year.

VIBE says large users of energy for lighting such as hospitals, schools, offices and retail stores are set to benefit most by retro-fitting the convertor kits.

VIBE Lighting Marketing Co-Ordinator Stephanie Leung: “ There are any number of T5 fluorescent tubes on the market that can be used in the retro-kit. We recommend the 28W Hitachi T5 UV-Cut for its longer 25,000 hour life, its low mercury content of 2.5mg and because it cuts potentially harmful UV rays by up to 75%.”

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May
06
Hitachi UV Cut Fluorescent Tube

Hitachi UV Cut Fluorescent Tube

We all know too much sun can cause sunburn, premature ageing of the skin and worse – that’s why we ‘slip, slop, slap’ and keep an eye on the daily UV index.
But did you know too many UV rays inside can be harmful as well?  Just ask any retailer with a shop full of fading or damaged merchandise and display materials.
UV rays emitted from interior pelmet, display and ceiling lighting can cause premature colour fading in all sorts of retail products – from jeans to magazine covers and everything in between.
UV rays can also result in light fittings becoming brittle and potentially dangerous over time as well as attracting swarming insects and bugs which die in the fitting and require constant maintenance. Prolonged exposure to UV rays are also potentially harmful to human eyes.
But the latest in the range of Hitachi UV-cut fluorescent tubes – the 28W T5 UV-cut thin fluorescent tubes reduce UV rays by 75%.
The lamps are coated on the inside with a UV light-reducing material making them gentle on eyes, skin and the merchandise.
Hitachi and their Australian distributor ANL Lighting, said the new 28W T5s also boast a longer 25,000 hour life, a low mercury content level of 2.5mg and increased operating efficiencies.
Available in warm and cool white, natural and daylight, the T5 UV-cut tubes have a colour spectral and colour rendering very close to natural light and for that reason are the lamp of choice for many art galleries around the world.
ANL expects demand for the Hitachi T5 UV-cut to come from the retail and restaurant industries as well as office, medical and education sectors.

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